There are a number of signs associated with end-stage renal failure. If your dog has been diagnosed with this condition, it's advisable to educate yourself about what to expect as your pet's illness progresses.
Canine Kidney Failure Stages
Dogs with kidney failure go through a series of four stages from diagnosis through the eventual death of the animal. These stages do not necessarily occur within rapid succession. A dog can go through them over the course of a few months and even years. Veterinarians determine the stage your dog is in by testing the urine to look for signs of the deterioration of the kidney's functions and the blood for symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels.
The Four Stages of Kidney Failure Chart
|Test||Stage 1||Stage 2||Stage 3||Stage 4|
|Creatine||less than 1.4 mg/dl||1.4 to 2.0||2.1 to 5.0||greater than 5.0|
|SDMA||greater than 14 in µg/dL||greater than 14||more than stage 2|| significantly |
more than stage 2
Other clinical indications that a dog is in the stages of kidney failure are:
- UPC Ratio:
- Nonproteinuric less than .2
- Borderline proteinuric .2 to .5
- Proteinuric greater than .5
- Systolic blood pressure:
- Normotensive - less than 150
- Borderline hypertensive - 150-159
- Hypertensive - 160-179
- Severely hypertensive - equal or greater than 180
Symptoms of End-Stage Renal Failure in a Dog
The most common signs of end-stage kidney disease include:
- Uremia: The buildup of waste products in the body that produces a distinctive ammonia smell that is especially apparent on the breath.
- Pale, dry gums: The gums are duller and dry to the touch.
- Mouth ulcers: Uremia causes raw mouth ulcers that are painful.
- Bloodshot eyes: The whites of the eyes are bloodshot.
- Increased thirst: An affected dog drinks water excessively.
- Dehydration: Despite more fluid intake, the dog is dehydrated.
- Decreased appetite: The dog loses interest in food.
- Weight loss: The dog steadily loses weight.
- Gradual loss of fat and muscle mass: The weight loss affects both fat and muscle mass and can cause emaciation.
- Dull coat that sheds excessively: The lackluster coat constantly sheds and looks unkempt.
- Lethargy: The dog has little energy or interest in moving around.
- Fatigue: He sleeps most of the day and night with only brief periods of wakefulness.
- Vomiting: The dog vomits frequently and cannot keep food down.
- Anemia: He may develop anemia.
- High blood pressure: The dog has elevated blood pressure.
- Incontinence: A dog cannot control urination.
- Difficulty breathing: The dog has problems breathing normally.
- Slowing heart rate: A faster heart rate is generally present with kidney failure, but the heart rate begins to slow down during the end-stage.
- Depression: The dog seems sad and does not respond to any of his favorite things.
- Lack of interest in surroundings: The dog is unaware of or disinterested in his surroundings.
- Disorientation: He acts confused at times.
- Loss of balance and coordination: He appears clumsy and unsteady on his feet.
- Trembling or twitching: He has tremors or episodes of trembling.
- Seizures: The dog suffers periodic seizures, one of the major signs of end-stage kidney failure.
Keeping Your Pet With Kidney Failure Comfortable
There are things you can do to help keep your dog comfortable during the final stages of kidney disease. Ways to help include:
- Spend as much time as possible with your dog. Even being in the same room will be soothing to him.
- Make sure your dog's resting area is quiet, warm and cozy. Provide him with his favorite blanket and toy.
- Protect your pet from other pets or people who may be too rough with him. Supervise interactions with children and teach them to be gentle with the dog.
- Pet your dog and talk to him frequently.
- Change your dog's bedding often and keep him clean and dry. Brush his fur for dry cleaning. Clean his fur with a sponge bath solution of hypoallergenic pet shampoo.
- Feed your pet a low-protein dog food appropriate for a kidney failure diet.
- If your dog refuses to eat or has trouble eating, ask the veterinarian about other feeding options such as intravenous feeding.
While a dog owner may fear that entering the final stage of kidney failure means their dog's passing away is imminent, it is difficult to predict how long the does has left. It also depends on the associated symptoms and other conditions that may arise due to the dog's poor health. Your dog's age is another factor. In general, you can expect your dog to pass away within three months of moving into stage 4 up until about one year.
End-of-Life Treatment Options
When a dog enters end-stage renal failure, the veterinarian may recommend an end-of-life home treatment plan to make your pet's last days comfortable and maintain your pet's quality of life. For end-stage kidney failure, a treatment plan may include dialysis, a stomach tube or intravenous therapy, pain medication and methods to care for an incontinent pet. Depending on his symptoms, your dog may not necessarily be in severe pain but he will be uncomfortable at the least from other symptoms including frequent vomiting and diarrhea, lethargy and depression, and constant dehydration. The veterinarian may recommend euthanasia if a dog is suffering, unresponsive to pain management, or too weak to handle necessary life-sustaining treatment.
Dealing With the Loss
It can be difficult to come to terms with the fact that a pet is dying. Find comfort in the fact that your dog appreciates your loving care for him in his final days. He knows that you love him and takes comfort in your presence and all that you do to make his life easier.